Matrix

AU
NZ
USA
CA
SG
HK
1. Responsible Authorities
What body oversees national standards for architectural registration?
Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA)
New Zealand Registered Architects Board (NZRAB)
National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB)
Canadian Architectural Licensing Authorities (CALA)
Board of Architects in Singapore
Hong Kong Architects Registration Board
What bodies register architects, conduct disciplinary processes, etc
Eight State and Territory Architects’ Registration Boards
NZRAB
Architectural registration boards in 50 states, the District of Columbia, and three U.S. territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands).
11 Provincial Associations of Architects
Board of Architects in Singapore
Hong Kong Architects Registration Board
Is the requirement for architectural registration specified in statute?
Specified in local law in each jurisdiction.
Registered Architects Act 2005
Specified in local law in each jurisdiction, based on NCARB's published Model Law & Model Regulations.
Specified in local law in each jurisdiction.
Architects Act 1991
Architects Registration Ordinance (Chapter 408)
Is the practice of architecture regulated as well as the title?
No, however restrictions apply in some individual jurisdictions.
No
Yes, only a registered architect (or person otherwise authorized) can practice architecture as defined in state law; or seal plans, drawings, specifications or other document for planning approval.
Yes, only a registered architect (or person otherwise authorized) can practice architecture as defined in provincial law; or seal plans, drawings, specifications or other document for planning approval.
Yes, only an architect can prepare a plan, drawing, tracing, design, specification or other document intended to govern the construction, enlargement or alteration of any building.
No
What body accredits university courses leading to architectural registration?
AACA, jointly with the Institute of Architects, provides the national procedure for accreditation by Architects' Registration Boards of programmes offered in their jurisdiction.
NZRAB jointly with the New Zealand Institute of Architects
National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB)
Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB)
Board of Architects in Singapore
Hong Kong Architects Registration Board jointly with Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA)
2. Professional competency framework
What formal underpinning framework(s) specifies the skills and competencies architects must develop from their tertiary study through until professional registration?
The National Competency Standard for Architects applies to both university education (specified components) and graduate training leading to the professional examination.
The Registered Architects Rules 2006 specify minimum standards for registration. The Australian National Standard of Competency for Architects is also referenced.
No single framework: (a) Educational Standard covers degree study; (b) IDP Guidelines cover internship requirements; (c) ARE Guidelines cover examination. Practice Analysis conducted every 5-7 years to identify the requisite knowledge, skills, and tasks necessary to practice independently.
No single framework: (a) CACB Conditions and Procedures for the Certification of Educational Qualifications covers degree study; (b) IAP Manual covers internship requirements; (c) ExAC General and Specific Objectives covers examination requirements.
No single framework. Examination syllabus set under s15 of the Architects Act is contained in the Professional Practice Examination General Requirements and Instructions for Candidates (also contains internship requirements).
No single skills framework. (a) HKIA/ARB Accreditation of Architectural Programs: Criteria and Procedures covers degree requirements; (b) HKIA/HKARB Professional Assessment Handbook covers graduate skills development and examination requirements.
Within the framework(s), how are the required architectural skills and competencies expressed for (a) university study, (b) graduate development, and (c) professional examination?
The National Competency Standard for Architects is divided into 4 Units of Competency: Design, Documentation, Practice Management and Project Management. Within this there are 42 performance criteria candidates must be able to meet to the standard expected in professional architectural practice. 23 of these apply to degree study, 7 to graduate experience and all may be considered during professional examination.
Clause 7 of the Registered Architects Rules specifies 16 standards covering six 'practice areas' of project initiation, design, documentation, procurement, contract administration and practice management.
NCARB Education Standard specifies 6 subject areas of study expressed in a total of 160 credit hours. IDP Guidelines specify 4 experience categories incorporating 17 experience areas totaling 3,740 core hours. ARE Guidelines cover 7 divisions: Site Planning & Design, Building Design & Construction Systems, Schematic Design; Structural Systems; Building Systems; and Construction Documents & Services.
CACB specifies 6 required areas of degree study. IAP Manual specifies 3 categories of experience incorporating 15 topic areas. ExAC covers 12 areas: Programming, Site and Environmental Analysis, Cost Management, Coordinating Engineering Systems, Schematic Design, Design Development, Final Project, Bidding and Contract Negotiations, Construction Phase – Office, Construction Phase – Site, Project Management, Code Research.
Examination syllabus covers: Architects Act, Singapore Statute, Planning Act, Building Control Act, Security of Payments Act, Standards/Codes/Regulations, professional conduct and ethics, standard contract terms, pre-contract issues, contract administration, post-contract issues, project management, office management.
"Accreditation Criteria specifies five areas for degree study. Examination syllabus covers: Statutory Controls in Building Works; Building Contracts; Professional Practice; Professional Conduct; Conditions of Agreement & Scale of Charges; Building Structures; Building Services & Environmental Controls; Building Materials & Technology; Site Design; Building Design; and Case Study."
3. Education
What is the minimum length of tertiary study prior to registration?
5 years
5 years
5 years
5 years
5 years
5 years
What is the accredited professional qualification for architects? How many universities offer this qualification?
2-year Master of Architecture programs offered at 19 Australian universities.
2-year Master of Architecture programs offered at the University of Auckland, Unitec Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington.
154 professional degrees accredited by NAAB at 123 institutions. Commonly 5-year BArch, 5-year MArch, or 4 year undergraduate degree with a 2-year or 3 year MArch degree. There is also 1 DArch program.
5-year Bachelor of Architecture or 2-year Master of Architecture program from 13 universities.
1-year Master of Architecture program from the National University of Singapore following 4-year bachelor degree.
2-year Master of Architecture programs offered at Hong Kong University and Chinese University of Hong Kong. (First stage degree only also offered by Chu Hai College of Higher Education & City University)
How are university courses accredited?
Courses are accredited for up to 5 years by State Architects' Registration Boards based on the recommendations of an expert panel.
Courses are accredited for up to 5 years by an expert panel (accreditation procedure licenced from the AACA).
Courses are accredited for up to 8 years by the NAAB based on the recommendations of a Visiting Panel.
Courses are accredited for up to 6 years by the CACB based on the recommendations of a Visiting Panel.
There is no specified procedure for course accreditation (architecture only offered at one university).
Joint accreditation by HKIA and HKARB for up to 5 years for both the pre-professional degree and the professional degree of Master of Architecture.
What document underpins the accreditation of university programs?
Australia New Zealand Architecture Program Accreditation Procedure
Australia New Zealand Architecture Program Accreditation Procedure
NAAB Procedures for Accreditation and Conditions for Accreditation
CACB Procedures for Accreditation and Conditions for Accreditation
N/a
HKIA/ARB Accreditation of Architectural Programs: Criteria and Procedures
How are non-accredited qualifications recognised for the purposes of registration?
MArch degrees from NZ/HK/Sing are accepted for registration purposes. Other overseas quals are assessed on a case by case basis through the Review of Academic Equivalence (for those with a student academic portfolio) or the Review of Graduate Equivalence (for those without their student portfolio).
MArch degrees from Aust/HK/Sing are accepted for registration purposes. Other qualifications require a Qualifications and Experience Assessment.
46 jurisdictions accept Canadian accredited programs for initial registration purposes. 45 jurisdictions accept an NCARB Education Evaluation Services for Architects evaluation of the credentials of foreign educated and/or broadly experienced architects against the NCARB Education Standard.
Canadian registering bodies accept US accredited degrees for registration purposes. Other degrees require individual certification by the CACB.
The Board of Architects in Singapore accepts UK, German, French, Japanese, Singaporean, Australian, US and Canadian accredited qualifications. Other qualifications may be be accepted on a case by case basis.
Accredited qualifications from China, USA, Australia and NZ accepted. Graduates from non-HKIA recognized schools need to take an Academic Qualifying Assessment (portfolio assessment) by HKU or CUHK.
4. Pre-licensure experience
What is the minimum period of industry experience required prior to seeking registration?
2 years, one year must be in Australia and subsequent to graduation.
140 weeks practical experience, of which 95 weeks must be subsequent to obtaining a recognised qualification and at least 45 weeks must be spent under the direction of a Registered Architect in New Zealand; OR 260 weeks practical experience, of which 215 weeks must be subsequent to obtaining a recognised qualification and at least 85 weeks must be spent in the practice of architecture in NZ.
Minimum of 3,470 core hours of structured experience, divided into 17 subcategories. Must also log 1860 ‘elective hours’ which can be from additional hours in core categories or continuing education, community service and a range of other supplementary categories. A few jurisdictions require 5,600 hours and/or a 3-year duration experience period.
Minimum of 3,720 hours of structured experience.
2 years (at least 12 months in Singapore) with examination; OR 5 years (at least 2 years in Singapore) without written examination; OR 10 years including work of high design merit without written examination.
2 years' relevant professional experience (at least 1 year in Hong Kong subsequent to graduation).
Do graduates undertake a mandatory structured internship prior to registration?
No. However, must complete a mix of Executive, Participant and Observer level experience covering 7 areas from the National Standard of Competency for Architects: prepare architectural drawings, co-ordinate documentation, establish site conditions, assess regulatory context, prepare preliminary project evaluations, co-ordinate specialists and administer a standard form contract.
No
Yes, NCARB Intern Development Program helps interns acquire experience across 4 practice areas derived from the Practice Analysis of Architecture, being: Pre-design, Design, Project Management and Practice Management. Interns register with NCARB, nominate a supervisor and (optionally) a mentor, and submit 6-monthly online experience records.
"Yes, the Internship in Architecture Program requires mentoring in three areas of: Design and Construction Documents, Construction Administration and Management. Usually takes about 3 years to complete. Attendance at a minimum of six one-day professional development seminars is also required in some provinces."
Yes, must register as a 'PPE Candidate' and nominate a Supervisor and Advisor (from outside their firm) to mentor the candidate through a development program.
Yes, must register with HKARB at least one year before sitting exam and nominate a Supervisor and Advisor (from outside their firm) to mentor the candidate through examination process.
Are their any requirements placed on the supervision of an architecture graduate?
Must work under a Registered Architect unless self employed (in which case the experience must be at 'Executive' level).
Must work under a Registered Architect for main (140 week) track to registration.
1860 hours must be completed in a firm engaged in the lawful practice of architecture.
Must work under the direct supervision of a Registered Architect.
Supervisor must be a Registered Architect.
Must work under the direct supervision of a Registered Architect who is an HKIA Member for at least 12 months.
Are architecture graduates required to complete a formal record of professional activities?
Must complete the APE Part 1, consisting of 3300 logbook hours and a Statement of Practical Experience.
Candidates must submit a 'case study' book showing how their work to date meets the 16 standards for registration.
Completion of an online NCARB Record at least every 6-months as a part of the Intern Development Program.
Must log 3720 hours in specified practice areas in the Canadian Experience Record Book.
Must submit professional Case Study and Logbook before undertaking examination.
Must complete HKIA Log Book in three parts: HK architectural experience, o/s architectural experience and related professional experience.
5. Examination for registration
Do candidates for registration need to undertake a written exam? If so what form does it take?
Single paper using professional practice scenarios tied to competencies (APE Part 2) offered twice a year.
No
7 part computer-based Architect Registration Examination (ARE), can be taken at any time in any order at any Prometric testing centre in the USA and overseas.
Examination for Architects in Canada (ExAC) in 4 parts, offered once a year over two consecutive days. US ARE results also accepted.
Professional Practice Exam (PPE) consisting of 2 written papers on 'Law and the architect' and 'Professional practice'.
Professional Assessment (PA), consisting of 7 written papers + case study, approved by HKARB and conducted by HKIA over two sessions (papers 3/4/5 early in the year and 1/2/6/7 later in the year).
Is there an oral assessment of candidates in addition to, or instead of, the written exam? If so, what form does it take?
Interview by two registered architects covering any area of competencies, typically 1 hour in duration (APE Part 3).
Candidate meets with two assessors for a 'Professional Conversation' on an applicant’s experience and knowledge. The applicant demonstrates their ability to meet the minimum standards required for registration by taking the assessors through their 'case study book' and their experiences.
No
"Pre-licence interview conducted by two to three members of the relevant Board of Registration, taking roughly one to three hours to complete."
Professional Practice Interview with three assessors follows exam, discusses Case Study and Logbook experience, and professional practical knowledge.
Must pass a Professional Interview jointly held by the HKIA/HKARB.
Are there any additional requirements that that apply to registration (e.g. good character requirements, business or employment requirements, residency requirements)?
A fit and proper person test considers prior bankruptcy, criminal record, disqualification from company directorship, prior refusal of registration, etc.
Not specified.
Candidates must meet any additional requirements established by their State Boards of Architecture.
Fit and proper person test applied on a jurisdiction by jurisdiction basis.
"The Board of Architects in Singapore may refuse to register any applicant who in the opinion of the Board is not of good character and reputation. Architect must be employed by a Singaporean registered company."
A fit and proper person test is applied, including whether tha candidate has been convicted in Hong Kong or elsewhere of any offence which may bring the profession into disrepute and sentenced to imprisonment, or has committed misconduct or neglect in a professional respect. Architect must be ordinarily resident in Hong Kong.
6. Mutual recognition arrangements and alternative registration tracks
Are there mutual recognition arrangements (MRAs) for architectural registration in place with other countries?
Automatic mutual recognition applies to architects registered in NZ. Under APEC Architect arrangements, a “fast track” to registration is available for architects with at least seven years’ post registration experience in Japan, Singapore and Canada. APEC Architects architects from these countries need only go through a short Supplementary Assessment Process by interview in order to obtain registration in any Australian jurisdiction.
Automatic mutual recognition applies to architects registered in Australia. Under APEC Architect arrangements, a “fast track” to NZ registration is available for architects with at least seven years’ post registration experience in Japan, Singapore and Canada. APEC Architects architects from these countries need only go through a short Supplementary Assessment Process by interview in order to obtain registration in New Zealand.
Under the MRA between NCARB and CALA, mutual recognition of registration is available between 40 US jurisdictions and all Canadian provinces. The Tri-National MRA between NCARB, CALA, and FCARM (Mexico) allows recognition for architects with at least 10 years post-registration experience that successfully complete a dossier and interview process. 47 US jurisdictions accept the agreement. The USA is part of the APEC Architect process but has not yet signed any related MRAs.
Under the Mutual Recognition Agreement between NCARB and CALA, mutual recognition of registration is available between 40 US jurisdictions and all Canadian provinces. The Tri-National MRA between NCARB, CALA, and the FCARM (Mexico) removes some registration barriers for architects with at least 10 years post-registration experience between these three countries. Under APEC Architect arrangements, a “fast track” to registration is available for architects with at least seven years’ post registration experience in Australia or NZ, subject to a Supplementary Assessment Process.
Under APEC Architect arrangements, a “fast track” to Singaporian registration is available for architects with at least seven years’ post registration experience in Australia or NZ, subject to a Supplementary Assessment Process.
Under APEC Architect arrangements, a “fast track” to Hong Kong registration may become available for architects with at least seven years’ post registration experience. Hong Kong has not yet signed any related MRAs.
Is there a mechanism for individual architects registered in an overseas jurisdiction to seek registration outside the usual examination process?
No
Some requirements may be waived for experienced overseas-registered architects (see below).
The Broadly Experienced Foreign Architect (BEFA) Program allows overseas registered architects with at least 7 years post-registration experience to apply for NCARB certification through the submission of a dossier showing how their work demonstrates the ability to meet the standfards normally established by the ARE (i.e. built work assessment). Applicants whose dossier is accepted are invited for an interview prior to registration. This program is currently under review.
The Broadly Experienced Foreign Architect (BEFA) Program allows overseas registered architects with at least 7 years post-registration experience to apply for CACB certification through the copmpletion of an online self-assessment showing how their work demonstrates the ability to meet the standfards normally established by the ExAC (i.e. built work assessment). Applicants whose assessments are accepted are invited for an interview prior to registration.
Overseas registered architects with at least 10 years' experience including work of work of high design merit may be exempted from the written examination.
Non-local professionals (NLP) registered by a recognised national registration body and who have at least 10 years' professional experience (or at least five years HK experience) may seek exemption from some or all written examination requirements.
Is there a mechanism for candidates to seek registration where they do not hold a recognised qualification?
People who may have extensive experience in architectural practice, who do not hold an accredited qualification, may apply for the National Program of Assessment (NPrA). The NPrA is primarily a design exercise which takes the form of a complex architectural project. NPrA candidates must respond to the project brief being in the form of a Report and companion drawings. The NPrA is currently under review.
Candidates may apply for consideration by NZRAB's Qualifications and Experience Assessment Panel (QEAP) as to whether their architectural studies and work experience are sufficient to be assessed for initial registration. This assessment will generally include presentation of a work case study, although this may be waived for experienced architects registered in other jurisdictions.
The Broadly Experienced Architect (BEA) Program was created to allow U.S. licensed architects who do not hold an accredited architecture degree but hold a license to practice architecture under the rules of a state registration board to apply for NCARB certification through the submission of a dossier (i.e. built work assessment). This program is currently under review.
The Canadian Institute of Architects' vocational Diploma of Architecture is accepted for registration. This is designed for people working in architectural practice who don't have an accredited university program. Consists of 18 units studied by distance, 8 face-to-face design studio workshops, a thesis and logging of 9800 hours experience. Diploma typically takes 8-12 years to complete part-time.
No
No
7. CPD and renewal of registration
What Continuing Professional Development apply to architects following registration?
National CPD framework specifies 20 hours of development activities per annum, 10 hours of which must be formal learning. CPD is not compulsory in all states for re-registration.
The NZRAB operates an optional CPD framework that may assist architects in the re-registration process. The framework target is 1000 CPD points (approx. 100 hours or equivalent activities) over 5 years, including 100 points in each of five classifications, these being Design, Documentation, Project Management, Practice Management, and core aspects of the practice of architecture.
Between 8-12 hours of Health, Safety, Welfare focussed study each calendar year is required in most jurisdictions.
36 hours of structured learning over two years, of which 16 must be core topic areas relate to the design, construction, use and maintenance of buildings, social and environmental responsibility, and professional conduct.
Not specified
Not specified
Are there any restrictions on architects continuing to be registered?
Maintenance of professional indemnity insurance (some states); undertaking CPD activities (some states); registration may be cancelled for major disciplinary infringements.
NZRAB applies two tests when deciding every five years whether an architect is still fit to practice, being that the architect still meets the minimum standard for registration, and that the architect has taken reasonable steps to maintain the currency of his or architectural knowledge and skills. Should the NRARB have concerns about an architect, they may require them to present for a face-to-face competence review assessment. Registration may be cancelled for major disciplinary infringements.
Individual jurisdictions may require CPD records; registration may be cancelled for major disciplinary infringements.
Must undertake CPD activities; registration may be cancelled for major disciplinary infringements.
Registration is indefinite except in cases of disciplinary breach, or if an architect has not held a practicing certificate for at least 10 years, or does not have an address in Singapore through which they can be contacted.
Registration may be cancelled for major disciplinary infringements.
8. Examination and registration fees
What is the usual fee to sit the examination(s) leading to registration (if applicable)?
AUD815
NZD1200 (approx. AUD 1152)
Each division of the ARE is $210 = USD1470 (approx AUD 1882) without retests. $310 per division at international testing sites.
CAD850 (approx. AUD 875)
SGD800 (approx. AUD752)
HKD12300 (approx. AUD1968)
What is the usual annual fee charged by the registering authority, excluding application fees (if applicable)?
Around AUD170-325 depending on the jurisdiction.
NZD644 (approx. AUD618)
Varies widely between jurisdictions from USD60-300 (approx. AUD77-384).
Around CAD800-900 (approx. AUD824-927) depending on the jurisdiction. Includes professional association membership.
SGD350 (approx. AUD329)
HKD1800 (approx. AUD288)
What is the usual period for registration?
12 months
5 years
1, 2, or 3 year terms depending on the jurisdiction.
12 months
Indefinite registration, practicing certificate issued each calendar year.
12 months